• Government: It is important to note that the government is based on structure and processes. The three essential pieces to government are providing law and order, ensuring access to information, and infrastructure. The role of the government is based on the norms and values set forth by the people. These norms and values can change over time based on the collective consciousness of society. Marx noted that the masses need to be governed or else there would be chaos. In support of this argument, people elect officials to ensure rights and place trust that the government will hold to an objective rational agenda.
• Governance: Global, National, Local measures to make sure the structure of government is mandating its agenda. It is the mechanism to make sure government is moving in the right direction with all voices being heard. The process in which decisions are made is essential. The center needs to interact and change according to the network’s demands. Governance is answering the question of how and why things are done.
• New Public Sector Administration/New Public Management (NPM) Reforms: This is a response to the ‘new’ notion of governance agendas. Changes are taking place based on the demand of the constituency. Decentralization and privatization are important elements of this reform. People are reclaiming their liberties. They are demanding that plans be enacted.
• Democratic Governance: The process of participatory inclusion in decision-making. The structure must steer towards the needs and wants of society. This may not always reflect the wants and needs of the majority, but rather those who have power of persuasion. Democracy-Too much talk, Too little action
• Political Economy of Development: The landscape of actors in any decision in governance.
• Policy Networks: The informal rules governed among organized interest groups and those the make them. The process in which the local agencies enact the central bodies rules and those interactions.
Accountability: Who is accountable to who is often the question that is asked when decisions are made. The new order of governance takes into account the voice often unheard in debates. Leaders struggle with this because they have policies to enact, but they are also responsible to the bodies that entrusted them. A government is accountable to the norms and values given by society no matter the type of government.
Legitimacy: ‘input-oriented’-The agreement of those who are asked to comply with the rules and ‘output-oriented’-Effectiveness of the rules to produce tangible results
Efficiency: Can the government through governance have competitive advantage in managing and enforcing laws and norms in society? The government needs to have a defined set of rules and then let the private manage them. It is more about the collective workings of the machine and not all the functions of the machine.